60+ Free Ethereum & Cryptocurrency Images - Pixabay

/r/Technology

Subreddit dedicated to the news and discussions about the creation and use of technology and its surrounding issues.
[link]

Blockchain-Based Decentralized Cloud Computing

A subreddit for all things related to the distributed blockchain-based cloud computing platform iExec.
[link]

Eidoo Wallet App's official subreddit

Fast, easy, and not only a Multicurrency Wallet: it's a hybrid exchange too. It’s Eidoo. This is Eidoo App's official subreddit where we talk only about Eidoo and its ecosystem.
[link]

Ethereum on ARM. New Eth2.0 Raspberry Pi 4 image for joining the Medalla multi-client testnet. Step-by-step guide for installing and activating a validator (Prysm, Teku, Lighthouse and Nimbus clients included)

TL;DR: Flash your Raspberry Pi 4, plug in an ethernet cable, connect the SSD disk and power up the device to join the Eth2.0 medalla testnet.
The image takes care of all the necessary steps to join the Eth2.0 Medalla multi-client testnet [1], from setting up the environment and formatting the SSD disk to installing, managing and running the Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 clients.
You will only need to choose an Eth2.0 client, start the beacon chain service and activate / run the validator.
Note: this is an update for our previous Raspberry Pi 4 Eth2 image [2] so some of the instructions are directly taken from there.

MAIN FEATURES

SOFTWARE INCLUDED

INSTALLATION GUIDE AND USAGE

RECOMMENDED HARDWARE AND SETUP
STORAGE
You will need an SSD to run the Ethereum clients (without an SSD drive there’s absolutely no chance of syncing the Ethereum blockchain). There are 2 options:
Use an USB portable SSD disk such as the Samsung T5 Portable SSD.
Use an USB 3.0 External Hard Drive Case with a SSD Disk. In our case we used a Inateck 2.5 Hard Drive Enclosure FE2011. Make sure to buy a case with an UASP compliant chip, particularly, one of these: JMicron (JMS567 or JMS578) or ASMedia (ASM1153E).
In both cases, avoid getting low quality SSD disks as it is a key component of your node and it can drastically affect the performance (and sync times). Keep in mind that you need to plug the disk to an USB 3.0 port (in blue).
IMAGE DOWNLOAD AND INSTALLATION
1.- Download the image:
http://www.ethraspbian.com/downloads/ubuntu-20.04.1-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-medalla.img.zip
SHA256 149cb9b020d1c49fcf75c00449c74c6f38364df1700534b5e87f970080597d87
2.- Flash the image
Insert the microSD in your Desktop / Laptop and download the file.
Note: If you are not comfortable with command line or if you are running Windows, you can use Etcher [10]
Open a terminal and check your MicroSD device name running:
sudo fdisk -l
You should see a device named mmcblk0 or sdd. Unzip and flash the image:
unzip ubuntu-20.04.1-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-medalla.img.zip
sudo dd bs=1M if=ubuntu-20.04.1-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 conv=fdatasync status=progress
3.- Insert de MicroSD into the Raspberry Pi 4. Connect an Ethernet cable and attach the USB SSD disk (make sure you are using a blue port).
4.- Power on the device
The Ubuntu OS will boot up in less than one minute but you will need to wait approximately 7-8 minutes in order to allow the script to perform the necessary tasks to install the Medalla setup (it will reboot again)
5.- Log in
You can log in through SSH or using the console (if you have a monitor and keyboard attached)
User: ethereum Password: ethereum 
You will be prompted to change the password on first login, so you will need to log in twice.
6.- Forward 30303 port in your router (both UDP and TCP). If you don’t know how to do this, google “port forwarding” followed by your router model. You will need to open additional ports as well depending on the Eth2.0 client you’ve chosen.
7.- Getting console output
You can see what’s happening in the background by typing:
sudo tail -f /valog/syslog
8.- Grafana Dashboards
There are 5 Grafana dashboards available to monitor the Medalla node (see section “Grafana Dashboards” below).

The Medalla Eth2.0 multi-client testnet

Medalla is the official Eth2.0 multi-client testnet according to the latest official specification for Eth2.0, the v0.12.2 [11] release (which is aimed to be the final) [12].
In order to run a Medalla Eth 2.0 node you will need 3 components:
The image takes care of the Eth1.0 setup. So, once flashed (and after a first reboot), Geth (Eth1.0 client) starts to sync the Goerli testnet.
Follow these steps to enable your Eth2.0 Ethereum node:
CREATE THE VALIDATOR KEYS AND MAKE THE DEPOSIT
We need to get 32 Goerli ETH (fake ETH) ir order to make the deposit in the Eth2.0 contract and run the validator. The easiest way of getting ETH is by joining Prysm Discord's channel.
Open Metamask [14], select the Goerli Network (top of the window) and copy your ETH Address. Go to:
https://discord.com/invite/YMVYzv6
And open the “request-goerli-eth” channel (on the left)
Type:
!send $YOUR_ETH_ADDRESS (replace it with the one copied on Metamask)
You will receive enough ETH to run 1 validator.
Now it is time to create your validator keys and the deposit information. For your convenience we’ve packaged the official Eth2 launchpad tool [4]. Go to the EF Eth2.0 launchpad site:
https://medalla.launchpad.ethereum.org/
And click “Get started”
Read and accept all warnings. In the next screen, select 1 validator and go to your Raspberry Pi console. Under the ethereum account run:
cd && deposit --num_validators 1 --chain medalla
Choose your mnemonic language and type a password for keeping your keys safe. Write down your mnemonic password, press any key and type it again as requested.
Now you have 2 Json files under the validator_keys directory. A deposit data file for sending the 32 ETH along with your validator public key to the Eth1 chain (goerli testnet) and a keystore file with your validator keys.
Back to the Launchpad website, check "I am keeping my keys safe and have written down my mnemonic phrase" and click "Continue".
It is time to send the 32 ETH deposit to the Eth1 chain. You need the deposit file (located in your Raspberry Pi). You can, either copy and paste the file content and save it as a new file in your desktop or copy the file from the Raspberry to your desktop through SSH.
1.- Copy and paste: Connected through SSH to your Raspberry Pi, type:
cat validator_keys/deposit_data-$FILE-ID.json (replace $FILE-ID with yours)
Copy the content (the text in square brackets), go back to your desktop, paste it into your favourite editor and save it as a json file.
Or
2.- Ssh: From your desktop, copy the file:
scp [email protected]$YOUR_RASPBERRYPI_IP:/home/ethereum/validator_keys/deposit_data-$FILE_ID.json /tmp
Replace the variables with your data. This will copy the file to your desktop /tmp directory.
Upload the deposit file
Now, back to the Launchpad website, upload the deposit_data file and select Metamask, click continue and check all warnings. Continue and click “Initiate the Transaction”. Confirm the transaction in Metamask and wait for the confirmation (a notification will pop up shortly).
The Beacon Chain (which is connected to the Eth1 chain) will detect this deposit (that includes the validator public key) and the Validator will be enabled.
Congrats!, you just started your validator activation process.
CHOOSE AN ETH2.0 CLIENT
Time to choose your Eth2.0 client. We encourage you to run Lighthouse, Teku or Nimbus as Prysm is the most used client by far and diversity is key to achieve a resilient and healthy Eth2.0 network.
Once you have decided which client to run (as said, try to run one with low network usage), you need to set up the clients and start both, the beacon chain and the validator.
These are the instructions for enabling each client (Remember, choose just one Eth2.0 client out of 4):
LIGHTHOUSE ETH2.0 CLIENT
1.- Port forwarding
You need to open the 9000 port in your router (both UDP and TCP)
2.- Start the beacon chain
Under the ethereum account, run:
sudo systemctl enable lighthouse-beacon
sudo systemctl start lighthouse-beacon
3.- Start de validator
We need to import the validator keys. Run under the ethereum account:
lighthouse account validator import --directory=/home/ethereum/validator_keys
Then, type your previously defined password and run:
sudo systemctl enable lighthouse-validator
sudo systemctl start lighthouse-validator
The Lighthouse beacon chain and validator are now enabled

PRYSM ETH2.0 CLIENT
1.- Port forwarding
You need to open the 13000 and 12000 ports in your router (both UDP and TCP)
2.- Start the beacon chain
Under the ethereum account, run:
sudo systemctl enable prysm-beacon
sudo systemctl start prysm-beacon
3.- Start de validator
We need to import the validator keys. Run under the ethereum account:
validator accounts-v2 import --keys-dir=/home/ethereum/validator_keys
Accept the default wallet path and enter a password for your wallet. Now enter the password previously defined.
Lastly, set up your password and start the client:
echo "$YOUR_PASSWORD" > /home/ethereum/validator_keys/prysm-password.txt
sudo systemctl enable prysm-validator
sudo systemctl start prysm-validator
The Prysm beacon chain and the validator are now enabled.

TEKU ETH2.0 CLIENT
1.- Port forwarding
You need to open the 9151 port (both UDP and TCP)
2.- Start the Beacon Chain and the Validator
Under the Ethereum account, check the name of your keystore file:
ls /home/ethereum/validator_keys/keystore*
Set the keystore file name in the teku config file (replace the $KEYSTORE_FILE variable with the file listed above)
sudo sed -i 's/changeme/$KEYSTORE_FILE/' /etc/ethereum/teku.conf
Set the password previously entered:
echo "yourpassword" > validator_keys/teku-password.txt
Start the beacon chain and the validator:
sudo systemctl enable teku
sudo systemctl start teku
The Teku beacon chain and validator are now enabled.

NIMBUS ETH2.0 CLIENT
1.- Port forwarding
You need to open the 19000 port (both UDP and TCP)
2.- Start the Beacon Chain and the Validator
We need to import the validator keys. Run under the ethereum account:
beacon_node deposits import /home/ethereum/validator_keys --data-dir=/home/ethereum/.nimbus --log-file=/home/ethereum/.nimbus/nimbus.log
Enter the password previously defined and run:
sudo systemctl enable nimbus
sudo systemctl start nimbus
The Nimbus beacon chain and validator are now enabled.

WHAT's NEXT
Now you need to wait for the Eth1 blockchain and the beacon chain to get synced. In a few hours the validator will get enabled and put into a queue. These are the validator status that you will see until its final activation:
Finally, it will get activated and the staking process will start.
Congratulations!, you join the Medalla Eth2.0 multiclient testnet!

Grafana Dashboards

We configured 5 Grafana Dashboards to let users monitor both Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 clients. To access the dashboards just open your browser and type your Raspberry IP followed by the 3000 port:
http://replace_with_your_IP:3000 user: admin passwd: ethereum 
There are 5 dashboards available:
Lots of info here. You can see for example if Geth is in sync by checking (in the Blockchain section) if Headers, Receipts and Blocks fields are aligned or find Eth2.0 chain info.

Updating the software

We will be keeping the Eth2.0 clients updated through Debian packages in order to keep up with the testnet progress. Basically, you need to update the repo and install the packages through the apt command. For instance, in order to update all packages you would run:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install geth teku nimbus prysm-beacon prysm-validator lighthouse-beacon lighthouse-validator
Please follow us on Twitter in order to get regular updates and install instructions.
https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM

References

  1. https://github.com/goerli/medalla/tree/mastemedalla
  2. https://www.reddit.com/ethereum/comments/hhvi2ethereum_on_arm_new_eth20_raspberry_pi_4_image/
  3. https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/releases/tag/v1.9.20
  4. https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-deposit-cli/releases
  5. https://github.com/prysmaticlabs/prysm/releases/tag/v1.0.0-alpha.23
  6. https://github.com/PegaSysEng/teku
  7. https://github.com/sigp/lighthouse/releases/tag/v0.2.8
  8. https://github.com/status-im/nim-beacon-chain
  9. https://grafana.com
  10. https://www.balena.io/etcher
  11. https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/releases/tag/v0.12.2
  12. https://blog.ethereum.org/2020/08/03/eth2-quick-update-no-14
  13. https://goerli.net
  14. https://metamask.io
submitted by diglos76 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. New Eth2.0 Raspberry pi 4 image for automatically joining Prylabs Onyx Eth2.0 testnet. Step-by-step guide for installing and activating a validator.

TL;DR: Flash your Raspberry Pi 4, plug in an ethernet cable, connect the SSD disk and power up the device to join the Eth2.0 Onyx testnet.
The image takes care of all the necessary steps to join the Eth2.0 Onyx testnet [1], from setting up the environment and formatting the SSD disk to installing and running the Ethereum Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 clients as well as starting the blockchains synchronization (for both Geth Eth1.0 Goerli [2] and Prysm [3] Eth2.0 Beacon Chain).
You will only need to create a validator account, send the deposit of 32 Goerli ETH to the Onyx contract and start the validator systemd service.
MAIN FEATURES
SOFTWARE INCLUDED

INSTALLATION GUIDE AND USAGE

RECOMMENDED HARDWARE AND SETUP
STORAGE
You will need and SSD to run the Ethereum clients (without an SSD drive there’s absolutely no chance of syncing the Ethereum blockchain). There are 2 options:
In both cases, avoid getting low quality SSD disks as it is a key component of you node and it can drastically affect the performance (and sync times). Keep in mind that you need to plug the disk to an USB 3.0 port (in blue).
IMAGE DOWNLOAD AND INSTALLATION
1.- Download the image:
http://www.ethraspbian.com/downloads/ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-onyx.img.zip
SHA256 13bc7ac4de6e18093b99213511791b2a24b659727b22a8a8d44f583e73a507cc
2.- Flash the image
Insert the microSD in your Desktop / Laptop and download the file:
Note: If you are not comfortable with command line or if you are running Windows, you can use Etcher [8]
Open a terminal and check your MicroSD device name running:
sudo fdisk -l 
You should see a device named mmcblk0 or sdd. Unzip and flash the image:
unzip ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2-onyx.img.zip sudo dd bs=1M if=ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 conv=fdatasync status=progress 
3.- Insert de MicroSD into the Raspberry Pi 4. Connect an Ethernet cable and attach the USB SSD disk (make sure you are using a blue port).
4.- Power on the device
The Ubuntu OS will boot up in less than one minute but you will need to wait approximately 7 minutes in order to allow the script to perform the necessary tasks to join the Onyx testnet (it will reboot again)
5.- Log in
You can log in through SSH or using the console (if you have a monitor and keyboard attached)
User: ethereum Password: ethereum 
You will be prompted to change the password on first login, so you will need to log in twice.
6.- Forward 30303 and 13000 ports in your router (both UDP and TCP). If you don’t know how to do this, google “port forwarding” followed by your router model.
7.- Getting console output
You can see what’s happening in the background by typing:
sudo tail -f /valog/syslog 
7.- Grafana Dashboards
There are 2 Grafana dashboards to monitor the node (see section “Grafana Dashboards below”.
See [9]

The Onyx Eth2.0 testnet

Onyx is an Eth2.0 testnet created by Prylabs according to the latest official specification for Eth2.0, the v0.12.1 [10] release (which is aimed to be the final).
In order to run an Onyx Eth 2.0 node you will need 3 components:
The image takes care of the Eth1.0 Geth and Eth2.0 Beacon Chain configurations and syncs. So, once flashed (and after a first reboot), Geth (Eth1.0 client) starts syncing the Goerli testnet and the Beacon Chain (Eth2.0 client) gets activated through the Prysm client, both as systemd services.
When the Goerli testnet sync is completed, the Beacon Chain starts syncing. Both chains are necessary as the validator needs to communicate with them (as explained below).
Activating the validator
Once Goerli and the Beacon chain are in sync you have just one task left, configure the Validator for enabling the staking process.
The image provides the Prysm validator client for running the staking process. With this validator, you will create an account with 2 keys (public and private) and get an HEX string that needs to be sent to the Eth 1.0 blockchain as data through a 32 ETH transaction.
The Beacon Chain (which is connected to the Eth1 chain) will detect this deposit (which includes the validator public key) and the Validator will be activated.
So, let’s get started. Geth Goerli testnet and the Beacon Chain are already syncing in the background. Goerli will sync in about 1 hour and the Beacon Chain in about 2 hours (so this will take 3 hours overall).
The easiest way to enable a Prysm validator is to use the Prylabs web portal to get Goerli ETH (testnet ETH) and follow their instructions:
https://prylabs.net/participate
Let’s break this down:
Step 1) Get Prysm
Nothing to do here. Prysm is already installed.
Step 2) Get GöETH — Test ETH
We need 32 ETH to stake (it is fake ETH as this is a tesnet). Prylabs created a faucet with a great UI so you can easily get 32.5 Goerli ETH.
You will need a web3 provider to use the faucet. Install Metamask browser extension (if you don’t have it running yet). Create an account and set the network to “Goerli test network” (on the top of the Metamask screen). Now, click once in “Metamask” and then click “Need GoETH?” button. Confirm the transaction.
Once funded, you will see something like this:
You are 0x0b2eFdbFB8EcaF7F4eCF6853cbd5eaD86510d63C and you have 32.5 GöETH. 
Step 3). Generate a validator public / private key
Go to your Raspberry Pi console and run the following command (make sure you are logged in with your ethereum user):
validator accounts create 
Press return to confirm the default path
Enter a password twice (you will need it later to run the validator so write it down and be careful). Once finished, your account will be created (under the /home/ethereum/.eth2validators directory) containing, among other info, your validator keys. Additionally you will get the deposit data as follows (this is an example):
========================Deposit Data======================= 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 =================================================================== ***Enter the above deposit data into step 3 on https://prylabs.net/participate*** 
Copy this data (just the hexadecimal part, from 0x to the last number), go back to step 3 of Prylabs website and paste it into the field “Your validator deposit data”.
Step 4) Start your beacon chain & validator clients
Beacon chain is already running in the background so let’s configure the validator. Just edit the /etc/ethereum/prysm-validator.conf file and replace “changeme” string with your password (you can use nano or vim editors). Now run:
sudo systemctl enable prysm-validator && sudo systemctl start prysm-validator 
Check if everything went right by running:
sudo systemctl status prysm-validator 
Step 5) Send a validator deposit
We are almost there. Just click the “Make deposit” button and confirm the transaction.
Done!
Now you need to wait for the validator to get activated. In time, the beacon chain will detect the 32 ETH deposit (which contains the validator public key) and the system will put your validator in queue. These are the validator status that you will see during the activation process:

Grafana Dashboards

We configured 2 Grafana Dashboards to let users monitor both Eth1.0 and Eth2.0 progress. To access the dashboards just open your browser and type your Raspberry IP followed by the 3000 port:
http://replace_with_your_IP:3000 user: admin passwd: ethereum 
There are 3 dashboards available:
Lot of info here. You can see for example if Geth is in sync by checking (in the Blockchain section) if Headers, Receipts and Blocks are aligned or easily find the validator status.

Whats's next

We are planning a new release for a multi testnet Eth2.0 network including Prysm, Teku and Lighthouse client (and hopefully Nimbus).

Gitcoin Grant

Gitcoin Grants round 6 is on!. If you appreciate our work, please consider donating. Even $1 can make the difference!
https://gitcoin.co/grants/384/ethereum-on-arm
Follow us on Twitter. We post regular updates and info you may be interested in!
https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM

References

  1. https://medium.com/prysmatic-labs/introducing-the-onyx-testnet-6dadbd95d873
  2. https://goerli.net
  3. https://docs.prylabs.network/docs/getting-started/
  4. https://www.reddit.com/ethereum/comments/gf3nhg/ethereum_on_arm_raspberry_pi_4_images_release/
    1. Installation script: https://github.com/diglos/pi-gen/blob/ethraspbian2.0/stage2/04-ethereum/files/rc.local.eth2.onyx
  5. https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/releases/tag/v1.9.15
  6. https://github.com/prysmaticlabs/prysm/releases/tag/v1.0.0-alpha.13
  7. https://grafana.com/
    1. Prysm Dashboard: https://github.com/GuillaumeMiralles/prysm-grafana-dashboard/tree/master
  8. https://etcher.io
  9. https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM/status/1277184480189517824
  10. https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/releases
  11. https://github.com/goerli/altona
submitted by diglos76 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Select all images with the creator of Ethereum

Select all images with the creator of Ethereum submitted by OrangeLambo to ethtrader [link] [comments]

Did you know RSK has developed a bridge between the RSK and Ethereum blockchains, fostering interoperability between the two networks? Bridge explained in this image!

submitted by sasquish to rootstock [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. Raspberry Pi 4 images release based on Ubuntu 20.04 64 bit. Turn your Raspberry Pi 4 into an Eth 1.0 or Eth 2.0 node just by flashing the MicroSD card. Memory issues solved and new monitoring dashboards. Installation guide.

TL;DR: Flash your Raspberry Pi 4, plug in an ethernet cable, connect the SSD disk and power up the device to turn the Raspberry Pi 4 into a full Ethereum 1.0 node or an Ethereum 2.0 node (beacon chain / validator)
Some background first. As you know, we’ve been running into some memory issues [1] with the Raspberry Pi 4 image as Raspbian OS is still on 32bits [2] (at least the userland). While we prefer to stick with the official OS we came to the conclusion that, in order to solve these issues, we need to migrate to a native 64 bits OS
Besides, Eth 2.0 clients don’t support 32 bits binaries so using Raspbian would exclude the Raspberry Pi 4 from running an Eth 2.0 node (and the possibility of staking).
So, after several tests we are now releasing 2 different images based on Ubuntu 20.04 64bit [3]: Eth 1.0 and Eth 2.0 editions.
Basically, both are the same image and include the same features of the Raspbian based images. But they are setup for running Eth 1.0 or Eth 2.0 software by default
Images take care of all the necessary steps, from setting up the environment and formatting the SSD disk to installing and running the Ethereum software as well as starting the blockchain synchronization.

Main features

Software included

Both images include the same packages, the only difference between them is that Eth 1.0 runs Geth by default and Eth 2.0 runs Prysm beacon chain by default.
Ethereum 1.0 clients
Ethereum 2.0 clients
Ethereum framework

INSTALLATION GUIDE AND USAGE

Recommended hardware and setup

Storage

You will need and SSD to run the Ethereum clients (without an SSD drive there’s absolutely no chance of syncing the Ethereum blockchain). There are 2 options:
In both cases, avoid getting low quality SSD disks as it is a key component of you node and it can drastically affect the performance (and sync times)
Keep in mind that you need to plug the disk to an USB 3.0 port (blue)

Image download & installation

1.- Download Eth 1.0 or Eth 2.0 images:
ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth1.img.zip
sha256 34f105201482279a5e83decd265bd124d167b0fefa43bc05e4268ff899b46f19
ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth2.img.zip
sha256 74c0c15b708720e5ae5cac324f1afded6316537fb17166109326755232cd316e
2.- Flash the image
Insert the microSD in your Desktop / Laptop and download the file (Eth 1.0, for instance):
wget https://ethraspbian.com/downloads/ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth1.img.zip 
Note: If you are not comfortable with command line or if you are running Windows, you can use Etcher (https://etcher.io)
Open a terminal and check your MicroSD device name running:
sudo fdisk -l 
You should see a device named mmcblk0 or sdd. Unzip and flash the image:
unzip ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth1.img.zip sudo dd bs=1M if=ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth1.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 && sync 
3.- Insert de MicroSD into the Raspberry Pi 4. Connect an Ethernet cable and attach the USB SSD disk (make sure you are using a blue port).
4.- Power on the device
The Ubuntu OS will boot up in less than one minute but you will need to wait approximately 10 minutes in order to allow the script to perform the necessary tasks to turn the device into an Ethereum node and reboot the Raspberry.
Depending on the image, you will be running:
5.- Log in
You can log in through SSH or using the console (if you have a monitor and keyboard attached)
User: ethereum Password: ethereum 
You will be prompted to change the password on first login, so you will need to login twice.
6.- Open 30303 port for Geth and 13000 if you are running Prysm beacon chain. If you don’t know how to do this, google “port forwarding” followed by your router model.
7.- Getting console output
You can see what’s happening in the background by typing:
sudo tail -f /valog/syslog 
Congratulations. You are now running a full Ethereum node on your Raspberry Pi 4.

Syncing the Blockchain

Now you need to wait for the blockchain to be synced. In the case of Eth 1.0 This will take a few days depending on several factors but you can expect up to about 5-7 days.
If you are running the Eth 2.0 Topaz tesnet you can expect 1-2 days of Beacon chain synchronization time. Remember that you will need to setup the validator later in order to start the staking process (see “How to run the Eth 2.0 validator” section below).

Monitoring dashboards

For this first release, we included 3 monitoring dashboards based on Prometheus [5] / Grafana [6] in order to monitor the node and clients’ data (Geth and Besu). You can access through your web browser:
URL: http://your_raspberrypi_IP:3000 User: admin Password: ethereum 

Switching clients

All clients run as a systemd service. This is important because in case of some problem arises the system will respawn the process automatically.
Geth and Prysm beacon chain run by default (depending on what you are synchronizing, Eth 1.0 or Eth 2.0) so, if you want to switch to other clients (from Geth to Nethermind, for instance), you need to stop and disable Geth first, and enable and start the other client:
sudo systemctl stop geth && sudo systemctl disable geth 
Commands to enable and start each Eth 1.0 client:
sudo systemctl enable besu && sudo systemctl start besu sudo systemctl enable nethermind && sudo systemctl start nethermind sudo systemctl enable parity && sudo systemctl start parity 
Eth 2.0:
sudo systemctl stop prysm-beacon && sudo systemctl disable prysm-beacon sudo systemctl start lighthouse && sudo systemctl enable lighthouse 

Changing parameters

Clients’ config files are located in the /etc/ethereum/ directory. You can edit these files and restart the systemd service in order for the changes to take effect. The only exception is Nethermind which, additionally, has a mainnet config file located here:
/etc/nethermind/configs/mainnet.cfg 
Blockchain clients’ data is stored on the ethereum home account as follows (note the dot before the directory name):
Eth 1.0
/home/ethereum/.geth /home/ethereum/.parity /home/ethereum/.besu /home/ethereum/.nethermind 
Eth2.0
/home/ethereum/.eth2 /home/ethereum/.eth2validators /home/ethereum/.lighthouse Hyperledger Besu and Nethermind 

Nethermind and Hyperledger Besu

These 2 great Eth 1.0 clients have become a great alternative to Geth and Parity. The more diversity in the network, the better, so you may give them a try and contribute to the network health.
Both need further testing so feel free to play with them and report back your feedback.

How to run the Eth 2.0 validator (staking)

Once the Topaz testnet beacon chain is synchronized you can run a validator in the same device. You will need to follow the steps described here:
https://prylabs.net/participate
The first time, you need to create manually an account by running the “validator” binary and setup a password. Once you completed this step you can add the password to /etc/ethereum/prysm-validator.conf and start the validator as a systemd service

Feeback appreciated

We put a lot of work trying to setup the Raspberry Pi 4 as a full Ethereum node as we know the massive user base of this device may have a very positive impact in the network.
Please, take into account that this is the first image based on Ubuntu 20.04 so there may be some bugs. If so, open an issue on Github or reach us on twitter (https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM).

References

  1. https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/issues/20190
  2. https://github.com/diglos/pi-gen
  3. https://ubuntu.com/download/raspberry-pi
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_forwarding
  5. https://prometheus.io
  6. https://grafana.com
  7. https://forum.armbian.com/topic/5565-zram-vs-swap/
  8. https://geth.ethereum.org
  9. https://github.com/openethereum/openethereum
  10. https://nethermind.io
  11. https://www.hyperledger.org/projects/besu
  12. https://github.com/prysmaticlabs/prysm
  13. https://lighthouse.sigmaprime.io
  14. https://ethersphere.github.io/swarm-home
  15. https://raiden.network
  16. https://ipfs.io
  17. https://status.im
  18. https://vipnode.org
submitted by diglos76 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Trying to create NFT images on Ethereum, migth use some help.

First of all, im not a programmer, im a pathologist. I take pictures of microscopic slides, some of wich make it into books and pathology publications, etc etc.
So, rigth to the question, is there a n00b way to store images as NFT in the ethereum blockchain? I mean, REALLY n00b. windows level point and click n00b. The idea is not just to store the images, but to notarize them as my copyrigth.
submitted by ricardosaurio_ to ethereum [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. New Eth2.0 Raspberry Pi 4 image for joining the Medalla multi-client testnet. Step-by-step guide for installing and activating a validator (Prysm, Teku, Lighthouse and Nimbus clients included)

submitted by cryptoallbot to cryptoall [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. New Eth1.0 image for the Raspberry Pi 4 (supports the new model with 8GB RAM). Geth Fast Sync with 8GB Raspberry Pi 4 completed in 1 day and 14 hours (includes sync report).

TL:DR: Raspberry Pi 4 Image take care of all the necessary steps to turn the device into a full Ethereum node, from setting up the environment and formatting the SSD disk to installing and running the Ethereum software as well as starting the blockchain synchronization.

Main features

First things first. We had some good news from the Raspberry Pi Foundation. They release a new Raspberry Pi 4 model with 8 GB and a 64bit Raspbian beta image. This is kind of a big deal, both for Eth1 and Eth2 clients. Memory was the bigger bottleneck for ARM devices by far. This new model pave the way for running Ethereum nodes without such limitation (and definitely for staking on these kind of devices).
Main features

Download link and installation

Please, download the image from:
ubuntu-20.04-preinstalled-server-arm64+raspi-eth1.img.zip
Installation and usage:
https://github.com/diglos/pi-gen

Changelog

Although a Raspbian beta was released 1 month ago, we are still using Ubuntu Server 64 bit as the base OS. We will be keeping an eye on Raspbian progress and test it as soon as possible.
Changelog:.

Geth fast sync report with 8GB Raspberry Pi 4 (1 day and 14 hours)

Hardware used:
Raspberry Pi 4 model B 8 GB. Includes:
Geth Sync report:

As you can see, sync time exceeded our expectations (by far). Syncing an almost 5 years old blockchain that process 700-900K transactions / day in a day and a half with a 75$ device is huge.

Grafana Dashboard

You can access a Geth dashboard to follow the sync progress:
http://YOUR_IP:3000/
See this example on Twitter:
https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM/status/1273176817894121472

Other Eth1.0 clients

Remember that other Eth1.0 clients are available (Besu, Nethermind and OpenEthereum). We encourage you to test and use other clients as diversity is very important for the Ethereum Network health.
For more information about switching clients, please go to:
https://github.com/diglos/pi-gen

Coming up

We are working on a new Eth2.0 image with the latest clients available. We will provide a step-by-step tutorial on how to sync the beacon chain and setup the validator (along with running the Eth1.0 goerli testnet). First we will join the Onyx testnet.

Gitcoin Grant

Gitcoin Grants round 6 is on!. If you appreciate our work, please consider donating. Even $1 can make the difference!
https://gitcoin.co/grants/384/ethereum-on-arm
submitted by diglos76 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. Raspberry Pi 4 images release based on Ubuntu 20.04 64 bit. Turn your Raspberry Pi 4 into an Eth 1.0 or Eth 2.0 node just by flashing the MicroSD card. Memory issues solved and new monitoring dashboards. Installation guide.

submitted by Cryptojanne to ethstaker [link] [comments]

+20 Ethereum (ETH) symbol images | Download Free Ethereum icon

ETH is one of the extremely potential coins in the cryptocurrency market. Ethereum was introduced in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin with the desire to create a coin to overcome the cons of Bitcoin. Ethereum can perform peer-to-peer transactions and contracts through a cryptocurrency unit of Ether (ETH). Not only that, but they are also considered a useful application platform that allows them to create their decentralized financial ecosystem.
VakaFx share to everyone +20 Ethereum (ETH) symbol images.
Click here to download
submitted by vakafxofficial to u/vakafxofficial [link] [comments]

The Great Bitcoin Bull Market Of 2017 by Trace Mayer

By: Trace Mayer, host of The Bitcoin Knowledge Podcast.
Originally posted here with images and Youtube videos.
I just got back from a two week vacation without Internet as I was scouring some archeological ruins. I hardly thought about Bitcoin at all because there were so many other interesting things and it would be there when I got back.
Jimmy Song suggested I do an article on the current state of Bitcoin. A great suggestion but he is really smart (he worked on Armory after all!) so I better be thorough and accurate!
Therefore, this article will be pretty lengthy and meticulous.
BACKGROUND
As I completely expected, the 2X movement from the New York Agreement that was supposed to happen during the middle of my vacation flopped on its face because Jeff Garzik was driving the clown car with passengers willfully inside like Coinbase, Blockchain.info, Bitgo and Xapo and there were here massive bugS and in the code and miners like Bitmain did not want to allocate $150-350m to get it over the difficulty adjustments.
I am very disappointed in their lack of integrity with putting their money where their mouths are; myself and many others wanted to sell a lot of B2X for BTC!
On 7 December 2015, with Bitcoin trading at US$388.40, I wrote The Rise of the Fourth Great Bitcoin Bubble. On 4 December 2016, with Bitcoin trading at US$762.97, I did this interview:

As of 26 November 2017, Bitcoin is trading around US$9,250.00. That is an increase of about 2,400% since I wrote the article prognosticating this fourth great Bitcoin bull market. I sure like being right, like usual (19 Dec 2011, 1 Jul 2013), especially when there are financial and economic consequences.
With such massive gains in such a short period of time the speculative question becomes: Buy, Hold or Sell?
FUNDAMENTALS
Bitcoin is the decentralized censorship-resistant Internet Protocol for transferring value over a communications channel.
The Bitcoin network can use traditional Internet infrastructure. However, it is even more resilient because it has custom infrastructure including, thanks to Bitcoin Core developer Matt Corrallo, the FIBRE network and, thanks to Blockstream, satellites which reduce the cost of running a full-node anywhere in the world to essentially nothing in terms of money or privacy. Transactions can be cheaply broadcast via SMS messages.
SECURITY
The Bitcoin network has a difficulty of 1,347,001,430,559 which suggests about 9,642,211 TH/s of custom ASIC hardware deployed.
At a retail price of approximately US$105/THs that implies about $650m of custom ASIC hardware deployed (35% discount applied).
This custom hardware consumes approximately 30 TWh per year. That could power about 2.8m US households or the entire country of Morocco which has a population of 33.85m.
This Bitcoin mining generates approximately 12.5 bitcoins every 10 minutes or approximately 1,800 per day worth approximately US$16,650,000.
Bitcoin currently has a market capitalization greater than $150B which puts it solidly in the top-30 of M1 money stock countries and a 200 day moving average of about $65B which is increasing about $500m per day.
Average daily volumes for Bitcoin is around US$5B. That means multi-million dollar positions can be moved into and out of very easily with minimal slippage.
When my friend Andreas Antonopolous was unable to give his talk at a CRYPSA event I was invited to fill in and delivered this presentation, impromptu, on the Seven Network Effects of Bitcoin.
These seven network effects of Bitcoin are (1) Speculation, (2) Merchants, (3) Consumers, (4) Security [miners], (5) Developers, (6) Financialization and (7) Settlement Currency are all taking root at the same time and in an incredibly intertwined way.
With only the first network effect starting to take significant root; Bitcoin is no longer a little experiment of magic Internet money anymore. Bitcoin is monster growing at a tremendous rate!!

SPECULATION
For the Bitcoin price to remain at $9,250 it requires approximately US$16,650,000 per day of capital inflow from new hodlers.
Bitcoin is both a Giffen good and a Veblen good.
A Giffen good is a product that people consume more of as the price rises and vice versa — seemingly in violation of basic laws of demand in microeconomics such as with substitute goods and the income effect.
Veblen goods are types of luxury goods for which the quantity demanded increases as the price increases in an apparent contradiction of the law of demand.
There are approximately 16.5m bitcoins of which ~4m are lost, ~4-6m are in deep cold storage, ~4m are in cold storage and ~2-4m are salable.
(http://www.runtogold.com/images/lost-bitcoins-1.jpg)
(http://www.runtogold.com/images/lost-bitcoins-2.jpg)
And forks like BCash (BCH) should not be scary but instead be looked upon as an opportunity to take more territory on the Bitcoin blockchain by trading the forks for real bitcoins which dries up more salable supply by moving it, likely, into deep cold storage.
According to Wikipedia, there are approximately 15.4m millionaires in the United States and about 12m HNWIs ($30m+ net worth) in the world. In other words, if every HNWI in the world wanted to own an entire bitcoin as a 'risk-free asset' that cannot be confiscated, seized or have the balance other wise altered then they could not.
For wise portfolio management, these HNWIs should have at least about 2-5% in gold and 0.5-1% in bitcoin.
Why? Perhaps some of the 60+ Saudis with 1,700 frozen bank accounts and about $800B of assets being targetted might be able to explain it to you.
In other words, everyone loves to chase the rabbit and once they catch it then know that it will not get away.
RETAIL
There are approximately 150+ significant Bitcoin exchanges worldwide. Kraken, according to the CEO, was adding about 6,000 new funded accounts per day in July 2017.
Supposedly, Coinbase is currently adding about 75,000 new accounts per day. Based on some trade secret analytics I have access to; I would estimate Coinbase is adding approximately 17,500 new accounts per day that purchase at least US$100 of Bitcoin.
If we assume Coinbase accounts for 8% of new global Bitcoin users who purchase at least $100 of bitcoins (just pulled out of thin error and likely very conservative as the actual number is perhaps around 2%) then that is approximately $21,875,000 of new capital coming into Bitcoin every single day just from retail demand from 218,750 total new accounts.
What I have found is that most new users start off buying US$100-500 and then after 3-4 months months they ramp up their capital allocation to $5,000+ if they have the funds available.
After all, it takes some time and practical experience to learn how to safely secure one's private keys.
To do so, I highly recommend Bitcoin Core (network consensus and full validation of the blockchain), Armory (private key management), Glacier Protocol (operational procedures) and a Puri.sm laptop (secure non-specialized hardware).
WALL STREET
There has been no solution for large financial fiduciaries to invest in Bitcoin. This changed November 2017.
LedgerX, whose CEO I interviewed 23 March 2013, began trading as a CFTC regulated Swap Execution Facility and Derivatives Clearing Organization.
The CME Group announced they will begin trading in Q4 2017 Bitcoin futures.
The CBOE announced they will begin trading Bitcoin futures soon.
By analogy, these institutional products are like connecting a major metropolis's water system (US$90.4T and US$2 quadrillion) via a nanoscopic shunt to a tiny blueberry ($150B) that is infinitely expandable.
This price discovery could be the most wild thing anyone has ever experienced in financial markets.
THE GREAT CREDIT CONTRACTION
The same week Bitcoin was released I published my book The Great Credit Contraction and asserted it had now begun and capital would burrow down the liquidity pyramid into safer and more liquid assets.
(http://www.runtogold.com/images/Great-Credit-Contraction-Liquidity-Pyramid.jpg)
Thus, the critical question becomes: Is Bitcoin a possible solution to the Great Credit Contraction by becoming the safest and most liquid asset?
BITCOIN'S RISK PROFILE
At all times and in all circumstances gold remains money but, of course, there is always exchange rate risk due to price ratios constantly fluctuating. If the metal is held with a third-party in allocated-allocated storage (safest possible) then there is performance risk (Morgan Stanley gold storage lawsuit).
But, if properly held then, there should be no counter-party risk which requires the financial ability of a third-party to perform like with a bank account deposit. And, since gold exists at a single point in space and time therefore it is subject to confiscation or seizure risk.
Bitcoin is a completely new asset type. As such, the storage container is nearly empty with only $150B.
And every Bitcoin transaction effectively melts down every BTC and recasts it; thus ensuring with 100% accuracy the quantity and quality of the bitcoins. If the transaction is not on the blockchain then it did not happen. This is the strictest regulation possible; by math and cryptography!
This new immutable asset, if properly secured, is subject only to exchange rate risk. There does exist the possibility that a software bug may exist that could shut down the network, like what has happened with Ethereum, but the probability is almost nil and getting lower everyday it does not happen.
Thus, Bitcoin arguably has a lower risk profile than even gold and is the only blockchain to achieve security, scalability and liquidity.
To remain decentralized, censorship-resistant and immutable requires scalability so as many users as possible can run full-nodes.
(http://www.runtogold.com/images/ethereum-bitcoin-scability-nov-2017.png)
TRANSACTIONS
Some people, probably mostly those shilling alt-coins, think Bitcoin has a scalability problem that is so serious it requires a crude hard fork to solve.
On the other side of the debate, the Internet protocol and blockchain geniuses assert the scalability issues can, like other Internet Protocols have done, be solved in different layers which are now possible because of Segregated Witness which was activated in August 2017.
Whose code do you want to run: the JV benchwarmers or the championship Chicago Bulls?
As transaction fees rise, certain use cases of the Bitcoin blockchain are priced out of the market. And as the fees fall then they are economical again.
Additionally, as transaction fees rise, certain UTXOs are no longer economically usable thus destroying part of the money supply until fees decline and UTXOs become economical to move.
There are approximately 275,000-350,000 transactions per day with transaction fees currently about $2m/day and the 200 DMA is around $1.08m/day.
(http://www.runtogold.com/images/bitcoin-transaction-fees-nov-2017.png)
What I like about transaction fees is that they somewhat reveal the financial health of the network.
The security of the Bitcoin network results from the miners creating solutions to proof of work problems in the Bitcoin protocol and being rewarded from the (1) coinbase reward which is a form of inflation and (2) transaction fees which is a form of usage fee.
The higher the transaction fees then the greater implied value the Bitcoin network provides because users are willing to pay more for it.
I am highly skeptical of blockchains which have very low transaction fees. By Internet bubble analogy, Pets.com may have millions of page views but I am more interested in EBITDA.
DEVELOPERS
Bitcoin and blockchain programming is not an easy skill to acquire and master. Most developers who have the skill are also financially independent now and can work on whatever they want.
The best of the best work through the Bitcoin Core process. After all, if you are a world class mountain climber then you do not hang out in the MacDonalds play pen but instead climb Mount Everest because that is where the challenge is.
However, there are many talented developers who work in other areas besides the protocol. Wallet maintainers, exchange operators, payment processors, etc. all need competent developers to help build their businesses.
Consequently, there is a huge shortage of competent developers. This is probably the largest single scalability constraint for the ecosystem.
Nevertheless, the Bitcoin ecosystem is healthier than ever before.
(http://www.runtogold.com/images/bitcoin-ecosystem.jpg)(/images/bitcoin-ecosystem-small.jpg)
SETTLEMENT CURRENCY
There are no significant global reserve settlement currency use cases for Bitcoin yet.
Perhaps the closest is Blockstream's Strong Federations via Liquid.
PRICE
There is a tremendous amount of disagreement in the marketplace about the value proposition of Bitcoin. Price discovery for this asset will be intense and likely take many cycles of which this is the fourth.
Since the supply is known the exchange rate of Bitcoins is composed of (1) transactional demand and (2) speculative demand.
Interestingly, the price elasticity of demand for the transactional demand component is irrelevant to the price. This makes for very interesting dynamics!
(http://www.runtogold.com/images/bitcoin-speculation.jpg)
On 4 May 2017, Lightspeed Venture Partners partner Jeremy Liew who was among the early Facebook investors and the first Snapchat investor laid out their case for bitcoin exploding to $500,000 by 2030.
On 2 November 2017, Goldman Sachs CEO Lloyd Blankfein (https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-11-02/blankfein-says-don-t-dismiss-bitcoin-while-still-pondering-value)said, "Now we have paper that is just backed by fiat...Maybe in the new world, something gets backed by consensus."
On 12 Sep 2017, JP Morgan CEO called Bitcoin a 'fraud' but conceded that "(http://fortune.com/2017/09/12/jamie-dimon-bitcoin-cryptocurrency-fraud-buy/)Bitcoin could reach $100,000".
Thus, it is no surprise that the Bitcoin chart looks like a ferret on meth when there are such widely varying opinions on its value proposition.
I have been around this space for a long time. In my opinion, those who scoffed at the thought of $1 BTC, $10 BTC (Professor Bitcorn!), $100 BTC, $1,000 BTC are scoffing at $10,000 BTC and will scoff at $100,000 BTC, $1,000,000 BTC and even $10,000,000 BTC.
Interestingly, the people who understand it the best seem to think its financial dominance is destiny.
Meanwhile, those who understand it the least make emotionally charged, intellectually incoherent bearish arguments. A tremendous example of worldwide cognitive dissonance with regards to sound money, technology and the role or power of the State.
Consequently, I like looking at the 200 day moving average to filter out the daily noise and see the long-term trend.
(http://www.runtogold.com/images/bitcoin-price-200dma-nov-2017.png)
Well, that chart of the long-term trend is pretty obvious and hard to dispute. Bitcoin is in a massive secular bull market.
The 200 day moving average is around $4,001 and rising about $30 per day.
So, what do some proforma situations look like where Bitcoin may be undervalued, average valued and overvalued? No, these are not prognostications.
(http://www.runtogold.com/images/bitcoin-price-pro-forma.png)
Maybe Jamie Dimon is not so off his rocker after all with a $100,000 price prediction.
We are in a very unique period of human history where the collective globe is rethinking what money is and Bitcoin is in the ring battling for complete domination. Is or will it be fit for purpose?
As I have said many times before, if Bitcoin is fit for this purpose then this is the largest wealth transfer in the history of the world.
CONCLUSION
Well, this has been a brief analysis of where I think Bitcoin is at the end of November 2017.
The seven network effects are taking root extremely fast and exponentially reinforcing each other. The technological dominance of Bitcoin is unrivaled.
The world is rethinking what money is. Even CEOs of the largest banks and partners of the largest VC funds are honing in on Bitcoin's beacon.
While no one has a crystal ball; when I look in mine I see Bitcoin's future being very bright.
Currently, almost everyone who has bought Bitcoin and hodled is sitting on unrealized gains as measured in fiat currency. That is, after all, what uncharted territory with daily all-time highs do!
But perhaps there is a larger lesson to be learned here.
Riches are getting increasingly slippery because no one has a reliable defined tool to measure them with. Times like these require incredible amounts of humility and intelligence guided by macro instincts.
Perhaps everyone should start keeping books in three numéraires: USD, gold and Bitcoin.
Both gold and Bitcoin have never been worth nothing. But USD is a fiat currency and there are thousands of those in the fiat currency graveyard. How low can the world reserve currency go?
After all, what is the risk-free asset? And, whatever it is, in The Great Credit Contraction you want it!
What do you think? Disagree with some of my arguments or assertions? Please, eviscerate them on Twitter or in the comments!
submitted by bitcoinknowledge to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. New Eth2.0 Raspberry pi 4 image for automatically joining Prylabs Onyx Eth2.0 testnet. Step-by-step guide for installing and activating a validator.

submitted by cryptoallbot to cryptoall [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. New Eth1.0 image for the Raspberry Pi 4 (supports the new model with 8GB RAM). Geth Fast Sync with 8GB Raspberry Pi 4 completed in 1 day and 14 hours (includes sync report).

submitted by cryptoallbot to cryptoall [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. New image for the Raspberry Pi 4. Turn the RP4 into a full Ethereum node just by flashing the MicroSD card.

TL;DR Flash the MicroSD with the EthRaspbian Image. Plug an USB 3.0 SSD disk (blue port), connect an ethernet cable and power up the Raspberry Pi 4. You are now running a full Ethereum node.

EthRaspbian (ARM7) [1] is a custom Linux image for the Raspberry Pi 4 [2] that runs Geth or Parity Ethereum clients as a boot service and automatically turns the device into a full Ethereum node. The image includes other components of the Ethereum ecosystem such as Trinity, Status.im, Raiden, IPFS, Swarm and Vipnode as well as initial support for Eth2.0 clients.
It also runs on the Raspberry Pi 2/3 but due to hardware limitations these devices are not capable of syncing the blockchain. However, you can run Geth or Parity as light clients or support the Ethereum network by running other key software such as Status.im, Raiden, IPFS or Swarm.
For running a full Ethereum node on ARM64 devices (currently NanoPC-T4 [3] and Rockpro64 [4]), please see the EthArmbian project [5]

Features

EthRaspbian Image takes care of everything, from setting up the environment to installing and running the Ethereum software as well as synchronizing the blockchain.
These are the main features:

Ethereum software installed

Requirements

Download and install instructions

Download Raspberry Pi 4 image
https://ethraspbian.com/downloads/image_2019-10-26-EthRaspbian2.0-lite.zip
md5sum 172dd37c30e4ae734ff39b45f5e5a33c
Flashing the MicroSD (Linux command line)
unzip image_2019-10-26-EthRaspbian2.0-lite.zip sudo dd bs=1M if=2019-10-26-EthRaspbian2.0-lite.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 conv=fdatasync status=progress 
Once flashed, insert de MicroSD, connect the SSD USB disk (blue port), the ethernet cable and power up the Raspberry.
Disclaimer: Keep in mind that your entire USB disk will be wiped out.
Login info
For security reasons, you will be prompted to change the password on first login.
For further info regarding installation and usage please visit Ethereum on ARM Github page [1]

USB SSD disk

There are 2 options for the SSD storage:
Use a USB portable SSD disk such as the Samsung T5 Portable SSD (as seen on this fantastic step-by-step guide to run a full node on the RPi4 by Grégoire Jeanmart) [7]
Use a USB 3.0 External Hard Drive Case with a SSD Disk. In my case I used a Inateck 2.5 Hard Drive Enclosure FE2011 [8] with a Kingston SSD A400 (480 GB) [9]. Be sure to buy a case with an UAS compliant chip, particularly, one of these: JMicron (JMS567 or JMS578) or ASMedia (ASM1153E)
Keep in mind that you need to plug the disk to a USB 3.0 port (blue)

Fast Sync data

These are the numbers of the Raspberry Pi 4 Fast sync:

Other considerations

30303 port forwarding is a must, otherwise, the sync process will be far more slow.
Try to get a case with a fan and a heatsink to prevent CPU throttle (during sync, the temperature can go over 80 ºC without a cooling system). There are lots of cases out there (like this one [10]).
The 2Gb model may work but you probably need to tweak Geth memory usage (I'm a little skeptical here, though). Try to reduce the --cache value in /etc/ethereum/geth.conf file. The swap memory config is in /etc/dphys-swapfile. Feel free to report here your feedback.
Take into account that fast sync depends on several factors: Disk throughput, network bandwidth, RAM memory, disk cache... so total sync time may differ between users. For the Raspberry Pi 4, expect between 3-5 days for the sync process to complete.
It seems that there may be an issue with memory management [11]. I got some errors during the sync process related to RAM (though it doesn't stop the sync as systemd respawns the process). It turns out that Geth can't handle 512MB of cache in the RP4 (it is set now to 256MB) while ARM64 devices (with 4GB of RAM as well) run with more than 1GB of cache with no problem whatsoever. In you run into this, please, report here or in Github your feedback.
Finally. A few days ago, at Devcon 5, Joseph Lubin set a goal of 1M developers working on the Ethereum ecosystem by Devcon 6. If this is achievable (I think it is), can we get a fraction of these users to run a full node? It just takes a MicroSD flash...

References

[1] https://github.com/diglos/pi-gen
[2] https://www.raspberrypi.org
[3] https://www.friendlyarm.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=225
[4] https://store.pine64.org/?product=rockpro64-4gb-single-board-computer
[5] https://github.com/diglos/userpatches
[6] https://www.raspbian.org
[7] https://kauri.io/article/9695fcca217f46feb355245275835fc0
[8] https://www.amazon.com/Inateck-Aluminum-External-Enclosure-Optimised/dp/B0739KPPFF
[9] https://www.amazon.com/Kingston-480GB-Solid-SA400S37-480G/dp/B01N0TQPQB
[10] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K2UecGfLPKI
[11] https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/issues/20190
submitted by diglos76 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. Raspberry Pi 4 "out of memory" crashes solution. ETH 2.0 on ARM progress (includes Prysm and Lighthouse clients for ARM64). Raspberry Pi 4 64bit support. New images available.

Ethereum on ARM is a project that provides custom Linux images for Raspberry Pi 4 (Ethereum on ARM32 repo [1]), NanoPC-T4 [2] and RockPro64 [3] boards (Ethereum on ARM64 repo [4]) that run Geth or Parity Ethereum clients as a boot service and automatically turns these ARM devices into a full Ethereum node. The images include other components of the Ethereum ecosystem such as Status.im, Raiden, IPFS, Swarm and Vipnode as well as initial support for Eth2.0 clients.
Images take care of all necessary steps, from setting up the environment and formatting the SSD disk to installing and running the Ethereum software as well as synchronizing the blockchain.
All you need to do is flash the MicroSD card, plug an ethernet cable, connect the SSD disk and power on the device.

Images update

Note: If you are already running an Ethereum on ARM node (Raspberry Pi 4, NanoPC-T4 or RockPro64) you can update the Ethereum clients and ecosystem software by running the following command:
sudo update-ethereum 
Note 2: For solving the Raspberry Pi 4 memory issues, either flash the new Raspberry Pi 4 image below or follow the steps described on the "Raspberry Pi 4 RAM issues" section.
DOWNLOAD LINKS
For further info regarding installation and usage please visit Ethereum on ARM32 Github repo [1] and Ethereum on ARM64 Github [4]
RASPBERRY PI 4 IMAGE
NANOPC-T4 IMAGE
ROCKPRO64 IMAGE
ETHEREUM SOFTWARE INSTALLED
CHANGELOG

Raspberry Pi 4 RAM issues

As reported recently on Github [6] there is a RAM allocation issue going on with the Raspberry Pi 4 that leaves the device completely unresponsive.
While doing some research we found several issues on the Raspberry official forum related to this topic [7].
It seems that the Raspbian Linux kernel has lots of problems handling 4GB of RAM (particularly on heavy i/o workloads). As so, The Raspberry Pi Foundation enabled a 64bit kernel on their official repository (note that the userland is still on 32bit). The 64bit kernel seems to fix the allocation memory issues.
A new EthRaspbian image with the new 64bit kernel enabled by default is available (see above).
If you are already running a Raspberry Pi 4 node, you can enable the 64bit kernel by following these steps:
First, make sure you have the latest stable firmware installed:
sudo rpi-eeprom-update 
Enable the 64bit kernel and reboot:
sudo echo arm_64bit=1 >> /boot/config.txt sudo reboot 
Once logged in again, run:
sudo uname -rm 
You should get this output:
4.19.75-v8+ aarch64 
which means that you are now running the 64bit kernel.
If for whatever reason you are running a higher kernel version (you installed the alpha/testing firmware with rpi-update tool), you can go back to the stable version by running:
sudo apt-get update; sudo apt-get install --reinstall raspberrypi-bootloader raspberrypi-kernel 
RASPBERRY PI 4 FAST SYNC STATS WITH 64BIT KERNEL (4.19.75-v8+)
We weren't able to reproduce the RAM issues running the 64bit kernel but this doesn't mean it is 100% fixed (more testing is needed). If you run into this or a similar memory problem please, report here or on Github (feedback appreciated).

Ethereum 2.0 client progress

As you may know, Eth 2.0 clients are progressing at a fast pace and the Beacon Chain release is around the corner. We are currently focusing our efforts on these Etherem 2.0 implementations (which already enabled public testnets):
As a first step, we are including the latest releases of Prysm and Lighthouse for the NanoPC-T4 and RockPro64 images (ARM64). As of today, nor Prysm neither Lighthouse compiles on ARM7 (Raspberry Pi 4). In the case of Prysm it will likely be solved in short [11]. Unfortunately, Lighthouse doesn't (and won't) support ARM7 at all [12].
Raspbian will most probably migrate to 64bit in the near future so this will be no longer an issue once they complete this process.
Again, if you are already running an Ethereum on ARM64 image (nanoPC-T4 or RockPro64) , you can install both clients by running:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install prysm-beacon prysm-validator lighthouse 
Regarding Prysm, as explained on an earlier post [13], follow the official instructions [14.1] (jump to "Get GöETH — Test ether" section) to join the public testnet. Basically, get the Goerli ETH (no real value), set the validator password and run both clients (beacon-chain and validator). Once you have done all required steps and make sure everything goes as expected you can edit the file /etc/ethereum/prysm-validator.conf and define the password previously set in order to run both clients as a systemd service:
sudo systemctl start prysm-beacon sudo systemctl start prysm-validator 
Lighthouse is provided as a single binary by now (so no config files or systemd service yet). Please, refer to their official documentation [15.1] (jump to "Start your Beacon Node" section) to test the software and join the public testnet.
We are testing Status Nimbus as well and will try to include it soon.
Expect a dedicated Ethereum on ARM image for testing Eth 2.0 clients on ARM devices (soonTM). Hopefully this will include an image for the Raspberry Pi 4 with Prysm and Nimbus clients.
RASPBERRY PI 4 AND 64BIT
Finally, some info regarding 64 bit support on Raspberry Pi 4. Although Raspberry Pi 4 CPU is 64bit capable, its official OS (Raspbian) is still based on 32bit [16]. Nowadays, it is hard to support 32bit software (as explained before, Prysm is running into issues compiling the client and Lighthouse doesn't even support it). Raspbian is going to migrate to 64bit but this will take some time.
However, It is possible to run 64bit software on the Raspberry Pi 4. One option is to use a nspawn container (runs Raspbian with a 64bit kernel and 32bit userland combined with a 64bit systemd-nspawn userland container) [17.1].
Other option is to install a native 64bit Linux image. As so, If you are eager to try the Eth 2.0 clients on the Raspberry Pi 4 (not tested and for advanced users only), you can follow these steps:
  1. Install the 64bit Ubuntu image for the Raspberry Pi [17.2]
  2. Add an ethereum user account and setup the storage in /home/ethereum (you can check this excellent guide by Grégoire Jeanmart to get an idea of how to do this [17.3]).
  3. Add the Ethereum on ARM64 repositories and install the Ethereum software:

apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 8A584409D327B0A5 add-apt-repository -n "deb http://apt.ethraspbian.com bionic main" add-apt-repository -n "deb http://apt.ethraspbian.com bionic-security main" add-apt-repository "deb http://apt.ethraspbian.com bionic-upgrades main" apt-get install geth parity swarm ipfs raiden status.im-node vipnode prysm-beacon prysm-validator 
Again, this is not tested yet but it should work. Please, report here if you give it a try.

References

  1. https://github.com/diglos/pi-gen
  2. https://www.friendlyarm.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=225
  3. https://store.pine64.org/?product=rockpro64-4gb-single-board-computer
  4. https://github.com/diglos/userpatches
  5. https://www.friendlyarm.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=263
  6. https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/issues/20190
  7. Raspberry Pi Forum (memory issues)
    1. https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=255433
    2. https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=249924
    3. https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=244367
    4. https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=244849
    5. https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=244531
  8. https://github.com/prysmaticlabs/prysm
  9. https://github.com/sigp/lighthouse
  10. https://github.com/status-im/nim-beacon-chain
  11. https://github.com/prysmaticlabs/prysm/issues/2546
  12. https://github.com/sigp/lighthouse/issues/706
  13. https://www.reddit.com/ethereum/comments/cgr9y4/ethereum_on_arm_nanopct4_and_raspberry_pi_images/
  14. Prysm documentation for joining the testnet, testnet info and block explorer
    1. https://prylabs.net/participate
    2. https://medium.com/prysmatic-labs/ethereum-2-0-development-update-41-prysmatic-labs-856851a1bd28
    3. https://beacon.etherscan.io
  15. Lighthouse documentation for joining the testnet and testnet updates
    1. https://lighthouse-book.sigmaprime.io/become-a-validator.html
    2. https://lighthouse.sigmaprime.io
    3. https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=63&t=252369&sid=2b6eb81b16071c28a9a616eabfaf4bc2
  16. Raspberry Pi 4 64bit. Raspbian container and 64bit distro images
    1. https://github.com/sakaki-/raspbian-nspawn-64
    2. https://ubuntu.com/download/raspberry-pi
    3. https://kauri.io/running-an-ethereum-full-node-on-a-raspberrypi-4-(model-b)/9695fcca217f46feb355245275835fc0/a/9695fcca217f46feb355245275835fc0/a)
submitted by diglos76 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Here we go again: Ethereum Successfully Shadow bans editorial news article: Post 38 minutes ago, not removed but scrubbed from new section, "Are mods censoring critical opinions even from editorial news sites" If this is true, worst tech censorship I seen thus far! Post image

This has gotten to a point where it seems like it is less likely accidental. https://www.reddit.com/ethereum/comments/gu9jzc/ethereum_significantly_less_private_than_bitcoin/
https://preview.redd.it/wwq9e3sez6251.png?width=1114&format=png&auto=webp&s=84ec59866436548b4da532940e467fcf79cde5aa
submitted by LoneroLNR to censorship [link] [comments]

Geth Full Node in Azure - Binding Problem

Hi everyone,
i like to run a Geth Full Node in a Azure Container Instance.
With the Azure CLI i can create the Container via
az container create --resource-group myResourceGroup --name geth-playground --image ethereum/client-go --dns-name-label geth-playground --ports 30303 30304 
And within the Container i try to start the ETH Node this way:
geth --datadir=/perm --port=30304 --cache=2048 --rpc --rpcport=8546 --rpcapi=eth,web3,net,personal --syncmode=fast 
But i always get the error message:
Fatal: Error starting protocol stack: listen unix /perm/geth.ipc: bind: operation not permitted 
Anyone a tipp what i am doing wrong?
If i am trying other ports the same problem appears...
submitted by HornyCaspar to ethereum [link] [comments]

Ethereum Draws a Complex Intraday Image Yet Regains Support

Ethereum Draws a Complex Intraday Image Yet Regains Support submitted by Acrobatic_Peak to EthereumLiveNews [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. Raspberry Pi 4 images release based on Ubuntu 20.04 64 bit. Turn your Raspberry Pi 4 into an Eth 1.0 or Eth 2.0 node just by flashing the MicroSD card. Memory issues solved and new monitoring dashboards. Installation guide.

submitted by cryptoallbot to cryptoall [link] [comments]

Hello my friends. Ethereum erush initial price (all time low) is 6533 satoshi. This is historical image. Believe me.

Hello my friends. Ethereum erush initial price (all time low) is 6533 satoshi. This is historical image. Believe me. submitted by omgbbqhax to EthereumRush [link] [comments]

#Deflexchange is an excellent and multifunctional system that tones up a variety of areas, and motivates its users with the advantage and ability to reward with digital tokens for the dissemination #DEFLEX #DEF #ICO #blockchain #crypto #bitcoin #ethereum https://www.deflexchange.com/ Post image

submitted by Rafiqul70 to CryptocurrencyICOs [link] [comments]

Introducing Ethereum Tree – Now Everyone Will Earn Ethereum

Introducing Ethereum Tree – Now Everyone Will Earn Ethereum
We are excited to announce the launch of Ethereum Tree, the most powerful, highly secure and transparent distributed application (DAPP) which allows investors to earn Ethereum in the form of dividend and also through referral bonus when successive investors invest in the Ethereum Tree system

Website: https://www.ethereumtree.com Telegram: https://t.me/ethereumtree Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/ethereumtree Medium: https://medium.com/@ethereumtree

What is Ethereum Tree?
Ethereum Tree is intelligent platform which works on simple principle of “money tree” – now everyone will earn Ethereum. It is a never ending source of income for those who will invest in the Ethereum Tree. Ethereum Tree grows continuously whenever new investors are added into the Ethereum Tree system.
How Ethereum Tree works?
Anybody willing to invest in Ethereum Tree can start investing with any amount as small as 0.0001 ETH. As name suggests, this platform is completely Ethereum blockchain based system. After investing into the system person will start earning profit based on the amount of ETH he/she is holding into Ethereum Tree smart contract.

Investors will get income in 2 different ways as explained below: 1. Income from dividend obtained from successive investments:
Whenever new investor invests Ethereum into Ethereum Tree smart contract (DAPP), system will deduct 10% amount as a network fee which will be distributed to all the investors who are already part of Ethereum Tree. Distribution amount assigned to each investor is directly proportional to the current holdings of that investor in Ethereum Tree. That means, investors with higher holdings will get larger portion of the dividend (Larger is the holding bigger is the profit). Same thing is illustrated in below image.

Income from dividend

Description: In above image Ethereum Tree has 3 existing members (1, 2 and 3) with holdings 1ETH, 2ETH and 1 ETH respectively. When new investor joins the system directly and invest 10 ETH to the system, 10% of his investment (1 ETH) will be deducted as a network fee and is available for distribution to current members of the system based on percentage of total holdings each individual member has in his/her wallet. So Distribution amount will divided into 3 existing members as below: Member 1 will get 1ETH * %of total holding in his/her wallet = 1ETH * 25% = 0.25 ETH Member 2 will get 1ETH * %of total holding in his/her wallet = 1ETH * 50% = 0.50 ETH Member 3 will get 1ETH * %of total holding in his/her wallet = 1ETH * 25% = 0.25 ETH So, Member 2 in our case will get more profit as he/she is holding greater portion of the System holdings.

2. Earning from referral bonus:
Ethereum Tree assigns unique referral link to each investor wallet. The format of link is as below:
https://ethereumtree.com/?ref=Your_ETH_Address
Whenever users share this link with his/her friends or relatives to refer them to Ethereum Tree DAPP he/she will get flat 1/3 of 10% network fee from the referral’s investment as a referral bonus. This means, whenever referred person invests 10% amount is deducted as a network fee for distribution amongst the present members of the Ethereum Tree but 1/3 part of that deducted amount will be directly given to referring person as a referral bonus and remaining 2/3 portion will be distributed amongst all the members of the Ethereum Tree based on current holdings. So, person who refers other members to the system will get double benefits (referral bonus as well as future dividend on referential bonus).

Income from referral bonus

Description: In above image Ethereum Tree has 3 existing members (1, 2 and 3) with holdings 1ETH, 2ETH and 1 ETH respectively. When new investor joins the system via referral link of Member 1 and invest 10 ETH to the system, 10% of his investment (1 ETH) will be deducted as a network fee. As new investor registered via reference of Member 1 Network fee amount deducted gets again divided into 2 parts (1/3 of it is given as a referral bonus to referring person and 2/3 portion of it will be available for distribution to current members of the system based on percentage of total holdings each individual member has in Ethereum Tree. So Distribution amount will be divided into 3 existing members as below: Network fee deducted will be divided as referral bonus and distribution amount as below: 1/3 part as a referral bonus to Member who referred new investor= 1/3*1 ETH =~0.33ETH 2/3 part as distribution amount = 2/3 * 1 ETH = ~0.66ETH Member 1 will get 0.66 ETH * %of total holding in his/her wallet = 0.66 ETH * 25% = 0.165 ETH + referral bonus of 0.33 ETH = 0.495 ETH Member 2 will get 0.66 ETH * %of total holding in his/her wallet = 0.66 ETH * 50% = 0.33 ETH Member 3 will get 0.66 ETH * %of total holding in his/her wallet = 0.66 ETH * 25% = 0.165 ETH So, Member 2 in our case will get more profit as he/she is holding greater portion of the System holdings.
Benefits of using Ethereum Tree as an investment option: • Investors get dividend amount from successive investors based on their current holdings in the system. So investor can increase their holdings to get more and more profit out of it. • Ethereum Tree is highly secure distributed system so no one controls it but the investors. So all the investments of investors are safe into the system (Ethereum blockchain). • Investors can withdraw their holdings including profits earned via dividend and referral bonus anytime as per their need. • Investor can earn unlimited profits by referring more and more members to the Ethereum Tree. User who refers other members will get benefits from both referral bonus as well as future dividend on referential bonus. • The best thing about Ethereum Tree is that the investors get profit based on percentage of total holdings which they have in Ethereum Tree. Holdings go on increasing with newly added members in the system and investor’s income from dividend also starts increasing.

submitted by EthereumTree to u/EthereumTree [link] [comments]

DIY PCB Toner Transfer (No Heat) & Etching - YouTube IPFS File Uploads With Ethereum Smart Contracts · #1 IPFS ... ETHEREUM 2.0 - ETH Staking - Vitalik Buterin Walks Back July 2020 Start Date Comment - Race to 32! EthPhoto  Ethereum and IPFS based image sharing platform ethereum mining image - образ для майнинга эфириум GenEthOS

Ethereum 101. Ethereum is a technology that lets you send cryptocurrency to anyone for a small fee. It also powers applications that everyone can use and no one can take down. It's the world's programmable blockchain. Ethereum builds on Bitcoin's innovation, with some big differences. Both let you use digital money without payment providers or ... Apr 10, 2019 - Explore HashGains's board "Ethereum Mining", followed by 222 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about Ethereum mining, Mining, Crypto mining. Find ethereum stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. Download stunning free images about Ethereum. Free for commercial use No attribution required ... Related Images: cryptocurrency money blockchain currency bitcoin 65 Free images of Ethereum. 40 31 7. Cryptocurrency, Business. 44 42 7. Farm, Mining. 21 20 1. Hand, Adult, People. 31 24 2. Business, Computer. 2 0 0. Ethereum, Bitcoin, Ripple. Download 15,359 Ethereum Stock Photos for FREE or amazingly low rates! New users enjoy 60% OFF. 132,666,713 stock photos online.

[index] [6434] [1936] [2420] [7147] [3313] [2934] [4864] [4997] [6634] [3358]

DIY PCB Toner Transfer (No Heat) & Etching - YouTube

Submission for Hack in the North by team Codappa. How to create a 3D Terrain with Google Maps and height maps in Photoshop - 3D Map Generator Terrain - Duration: 20:32. Orange Box Ceo 7,317,312 views DIY PCB Toner Transfer (No Heat) & Etching No need to use an Iron, transfer easily and fast! No need to soak in water to remove paper, just peel and etch. Mu... IPFS File Uploads With Ethereum Smart Contracts · #1 IPFS Image Storage DApp Tutorial - Duration: 28:11. Dapp University 21,251 views. 28:11. Arnold Schwarzenegger This Speech Broke The Internet AND Most Inspiring Speech- It Changed My Life. - Duration: 14:58. Alpha Leaders Productions Recommended for you 8.01x - Lect 24 - Rolling Motion, Gyroscopes, VERY NON-INTUITIVE - Duration: 49:13. Lectures by Walter Lewin. They will make you ♥ Physics. Recommended for you

https://binary-option-arabic.binaryoptionsforustraders.info